Francis turbine has a circular plate fixed to the rotating shaft perpendicular to its surface and passing through its center. Francis hydro turbine has the widest range of water head applications. Francis in 1848, it became know as the francis turbine around 1920, in honor of his many contributions to hydraulic engineering analysis and design. Onboard measurements at a 100mw highhead francis turbine. An example for such a singleregulated horizontal axis twin francis turbine is. Horizontal shaft francis hydro turbine francis water turbine with stainless steel runner. The water enters the runner radially and is discharged axially, because of this, francis turbines are classified as mixed flow turbines. Cross section of a casted heavy francis turbine left and a modern high head turbine with welded runner and. Francis turbines are generally arranged so that the axis is vertical although smaller turbines can have a horizontal axis. Pelton this impulse turbine is designed for sites with high head and lower.
Horizontal francis turbine unit with water head ranging from 10 to 300m and 100kw to 50mw capacity horizontal francis turbine unit key specificationsspecial features. Pdf numerical research of cavitation on francis turbine. The admission of a francis turbine is radial and the outlet is axial. They operate in a water head range of 10 to 300 meters and are primarily used for electrical power production. Water then flows through the wicket gate to the turbine runner. Three gorges dam francis turbine runner the francis turbine is a type of reaction turbine, a category of turbine in which the working fluid comes to the turbine under immense pressure and the energy is extracted by the turbine blades from the working fluid. Last update 220520 energy systems hydraulic turbines and hydroelectric power plants 1. Stainless steel runner horizontal small francis turbine.
Runner of francis turbine the shape of the blades of a francis runner is complex. Francis and kaplan turbines belong to this category. Pdf the variable demand on the energy market requires great flexibility in operating hydraulic turbines. Hydraulic turbines and hydroelectric power plants 1. This requires that the runner should admit a comparatively large quantity of water for a given power output and. The francis turbine is consist of water inlet parts, spiral case, turbine distributor, runner, draft tube, main shaft part, main shaft service sealing, servomotor assembly, guide vane regulating ring, braking device and etc. Andritz hydro francis turbines are available in varying configurations, horizontal or vertical, with flexibility in design to ensure best efficiency and reliability of operation under the most extreme conditions. The francis turbine is mixed flow reaction turbine. Besides the runner, the other major components are the scroll case, wicket gates, and draft tube. It has fixed runner blades and adjustable guide vanes. The francis turbine is a mixedflow radial turbine and is used for medium heads in the range. Index termscfd, francis turbine, runner, design and. Turbine machines are pumps, fans, compressors, water turbines, gas turbines, steam turbines, wind turbines, aircraft and marine propellers, torque converters, hydrodynamic clutches etc. We explore this concept using realistic francis turbine tandem cascades, with.
Hydropower turbines are in two types as impulse and reaction where kaplan turbine is a reaction type which was invented in 19. The third item, optimum head loss within the conduit, can be determined from a sub routine within the program, and is based on experience obtained from developed hydro sites. The francis turbine, named for him, is the first modern water turbine. Radial water flow to the runner and axial emerge as a result of the runner spinning. Introduction to turbine machinery university of ljubljana. Francis turbines are the most wellknown type of reaction turbines. The dft can operate with one runner only singlerunner operation or with both runners doublerunner operation. Francis turbine design and manufacture has much more complications compared to other types of turbines, at least in the context of nepal. Wicket gates and a draft tube are two other main elements of the francis turbine. This turbine has a radial flow runner or a mixed radialaxial flow runner. Pdf failure analysis of a francis turbine runner researchgate.
The dft, also known as a doubleflow horizontalshaft francis turbine consists of a single spiral casing with stay vanes, two independent guide vane apparatuses directing flow in eachside of the doublerunner and two draft tubes discharging water into the tailrace. Reverse engineering methodology is applied for kahta h. Runners runner configuration can be adapted to get the highest level of efficiency in its whole range of application. It is obvious from the equation of specific speed eq. Francis runner has little resemblance to the original turbines designed by james b. Bulb hydro turbine unrivaled power capacity ratio for low heads with more than 300 bulb units installed worldwide, ge brings expertise in design, manufacturing, installation, commissioning and management of complex bulb projects, for a wide range of environmental conditions. Francis runners are milled from a single block of forged steel to ensure high runner quality. Selection of optimal number of francis runner blades for a. Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today. Design and analysis of a kaplan turbine runner wheel. Cross flow turbine while the use of francis turbine is limited. Major historical developments in the design of water.
Stainless steel runner horizontal 100kw to 500kw small francis turbine. Kaplan turbine is an axial reaction flow turbine and has adjustable blades if water flows parallel to the axis of the rotation of the shaft, the turbine is known as the axial flow turbine and if the head of the inlet of the turbine is the sum of pressure energy and kinetic energy during the flow of water through a runner a part of pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy, the. This study presents a reverse engineering process of detecting the reasons for lack of performance of an actual hydraulic turbine runner. A francis turbine has a runner with fixed buckets vanes, usually nine or more. The ideal choiice for medium head and large unit output. Mavels line of francis turbines is designed for heads from 15 to 300 meters 50 to feet. Introduction to francis turbine diagram, working principle. Inox casing and covers as requirement on potable water systems. Cross section of one of the 50 mw francis runners for vinstra power plant operating at 420 m net head the runners had 15 full length blades and 15 splitter blades the outlet edge of the splitter blades is shown by dotted lines. A crossflow turbine always has its runner shaft horizontal unlike pelton and turgo turbines which can have either horizontal or vertical shaft orientation. The francis turbine is also called a radial flow turbine, since water flows from the outer circumference towards the centre of runner. How francis reaction turbines work hydropower youtube. Turbines that operate in this way are called reaction turbines. Hydrohelp 1 turbine selection baker issue, january 2009.
Hydraulic turbineshydraulic turbines session delivered by. This depends on the slips and other mechanical problems that will create a loss of energy between the runner in the annular area between. Horizontal pelton turbine can be designed with either one runner or two runners mounted on the same shaft, with water supplied to each runner by one up to three nozzles. Water is introduced just above the runner and all around it and then falls through, causing it to spin. Xin yi hydro turbine design and manufacture francis hydro turbine and small and medium size of hydro turbine generator, and the pelton hydro turbine, are a favorite for the oversea clients. The efficiency of a turbine is highly influenced by its runner wheel and this work aims to study the design of a kaplan turbine runner wheel. Design, performance and maintenance of francis turbines. Design optimization of head cover of vertical francis turbine from. Francis turbine runner on sales quality francis turbine. It is a site specific and therefore needs specific design to. The turbine casing, with the runner fully immersed in water, must be strong enough to withstand the operating pressure. Hydraulic turbineshydraulic turbines raven mechanical.
Design of the runner of a kaplan turbine for small. Francis turbines are very able to sustain the high mechanical stress resulting from high heads. Vertical pelton turbine can be equipped with four to six jet nozzles and can successfully substitute a specifically slower francis turbine. Francis turbines have a wide applica on range for medium heads. This textbook is about principles of turbine machinery. This turbine is used for medium heads with medium discharge. Like the francis turbine runners, mavels pelton runners are milled from a single. Functions of spiral casing, guide vanes, runner blades, blade pitching and draft tube. Mavels francis turbines are installed in europe, the americas, africa and asia. The top countries of supplier is china, from which the percentage of turbine runner francis horizontal supply is 100% respectively.
We have successfully completed numerous installations of francis turbines with outputs up to 20 mw, runner diameter 2000 mm. With help of 3d animation working and design aspects of a kaplan turbine is elaborated in this video lecture. This led to the development of the tubular turbine in which the kaplan type of runner is used, with fixed or variable blades, and installed with its axis more or less horizontal. Francis hydro turbine is mostly suitable for hydropower stations with medium or high head from 30 m to 300 m. They are available with a runner diameter from 400 mm to 2500 mm, can be configured as a horizontal or vertical unit and have installed power of up to 30 mw. Major historical developments in the design of water wheels and francis hydroturbines. Hydraulic turbines and hydroelectric power plants michele manno. The paper also includes an ancient runner design with plate steel blades moulded in cast steel at crown and band. Designed for heads from 20 m to 400 m, hpp francis runners can achieve more than 94% efficiency. Horizontal shaft francis hydro turbine for hydropower. Our spectrum of pelton turbines could be divided according to the following categorization. The francis turbine runners of the four ternary groups of grimsel. Principal components consist of the runner, a water supply case to convey the water to the. In a francis turbine, the runner blades are divided into two parts.141 1435 474 178 1207 1271 403 1061 1392 1010 128 1161 1382 1524 472 269 1098 456 53 1403 79 718 1415 88 863 1294 216 796 1250 595 181 1336 127 1426 1228 334 683 339 773 146 177 36 1461 559